The San Francisco General Hospital/University of California–San Francisco Department of Radiology has created a groundbreaking communications tool called Radiologue. Alexander V. Rybkin, MD, a radiologist in that department, described the system in “A Web-based Flexible Communication System in Radiology,” which he presented in Minneapolis, Minnesota, on June 5, 2010, at the annual meeting of the Society for Imaging Informatics in Medicine.
Radiologue shows great promise not only in improving communications within radiology departments and practices, but in untangling knotted workflows and enhancing patient care. By giving all parties involved in imaging access to user-annotated information on studies and patients in real time, it replaces whiteboards and logbooks, both of which are often illegible or inaccessible. Based on the operations of a typical department, one must assume that Radiologue also does away with a number of exasperating, ineffective, or frantic phone calls.
The starting point, Rybkin says, was a busy department’s chaotic communications routine, which employed procedure logbooks and whiteboards. Since San Francisco General Hospital handles 50,000 emergency-department visits, 18,000 admissions, and 25,000 CT exams per year, the potential for poor communications (and poorer consequences) was immense. Although the hospital had addressed many potential problem areas using quality-improvement and workflow-enhancement techniques, bottlenecks could still be created by failed communications in radiology.
A Comprehensive System
Radiologue was built using Microsoft® ASP.NET, which permits users to construct Web-based applications on an enterprise scale with only minimal programming. Microsoft Ajax controls were used on the client side to make the Web pages respond to users’ input and other actions.
Based on a service-oriented architecture, Radiologue uses read-only data from the RIS as its core. Through HTTP, information from the hospital information system (HIS) and PACS is added; these data flow in both directions, unlike the RIS data, and the HIS and PACS can be opened by users as Web windows (with proper validation). The workstations of technologists and department managers also use HTTP for multidirectional communications.
Messages can be exchanged by the radiology department’s technologists, physicians (including residents and fellows), and staff, as well as by users outside the department. These include attending/referring physicians, emergency-department physicians, and nurses. Among many other possible actions, physicians can change the order and/or priority of studies (see figure), residents can flag interesting cases, and clinicians can add patient-history notes that will later streamline study interpretation.
Radiologue maintains constantly updated lists of patients and procedures, accompanied by integrated data from the RIS, HIS, and PACS, as well as by users’ notes in flexible, configurable formats. A stoplight color-coding system uses red to advise any list’s viewers of critical information at a glance and yellow to indicate the addition of preliminary data of medium importance, with green showing that all is proceeding as expected.
This comprehensive integration gives users not only a means of communicating instantly, effectively, and multidirectionally, but a better grasp of how the radiology department as a whole is operating at any time.
Rybkin’s department chose to develop Radiologue using Web services, he says, because it needed flexibility. The system can be developed, configured, and changed in many user-friendly ways, he adds, and it allows the creation of notes of many kinds and multiple functions. Many are text boxes, for instance, but others are checkbox questionnaires, and some types of notes can be used to deliver system information to clinicians.
Rybkin points out that in traditional radiology communications, messages tend to move only in one direction and to have only a single function. Radiologue, instead of behaving as this linear model does, works in what he calls a more holistic way, making messages and their functions resemble a web instead of a lone string.
In response, Radiologue’s 2,154 enthusiastic users created a communications web of their own during the system’s first 17 month of use. They have generated 54,000 new notes, which have been viewed 59,000 times; the system has been accessed 36,000 times by radiologists and 31,000 times